- por Mariana Zambon Braga

Durante séculos, a humanidade tem desenvolvido ferramentas para investigar a verdade dos fatos da vida e do universo. A filosofia, os métodos de investigação científica, a racionalidade, de modo geral, nos auxiliam a organizar o pensamento e a demonstrar uma resposta através de mecanismos minimamente concretos.

Ignorar todo esse processo de evolução do pensamento é algo inimaginável, não é mesmo? Porém, a cada dia mais e mais notícias falsas pipocam em nossas timelines e presenciamos discussões embasadas em argumentos inexistentes - exceto pela máxima "essa é a minha opinião".

Uma opinião não vale mais do que a verdade absoluta, por mais que nossas crenças pessoais sejam apaixonadas. Vocês acreditam que existe um grupo de pessoas que jura que a Terra é plana? E ai de você se tentar convencê-los do contrário, apresentando fatos.

Tudo isso porque nós achamos que estamos com a razão, que estamos certas, mesmo quando não estamos. E por que será que a gente resiste em aceitar que a nossa opinião ou nossas ideias estão erradas?

Quando se trata de opinião, somos, em maioria, combatentes. Tomamos nos braços o tesouro precioso criado pela nossa mente, formado por nossos conceitos e ideias, os trancamos em um baú bem protegido. Mostramos ao mundo quando desejamos e, pelo medo de sermos roubadas, voltamos a trancafiar a preciosa opinião a sete chaves, evitando ao máximo que ela seja transformada.

Queremos estar certas. Queremos vencer a batalha da argumentação. Isso nos dá uma sensação de poder, inteligência, sabedoria e validação. Queremos que a nossa visão de mundo prevaleça, acima de tudo.

Parece até que mudar de opinião é algo que nos rouba de nós mesmas. Embora, obviamente, não roube. O nosso valor pessoal não está atrelado ao fato de estarmos certas ou erradas a respeito de alguma coisa. 

Em sua palestra no TED, Julia Galef nos mostra que defender as suas crenças não é uma questão de personalidade forte, mas de mentalidade. Ela afirma que existem dois tipos predominantes de mentalidade: a do soldado, e a do batedor.

A mentalidade do soldado fará o que for preciso para combater as ideias inimigas, atacando-as, ou defendendo as suas próprias noções sobre o assunto em questão. É o que os cientistas chamam de tendência cognitiva ou viés cognitivo - que, em resumo, nos leva a tomar decisões com base nas emoções, e a confirmar teorias sem nenhum embasamento, apenas pelo "achismo" e pela validação de outras pessoas. Traduzindo: é uma mentalidade fechada.

Já a do batedor tentará ter uma visão clara da verdade, ainda que ela seja inconveniente ou nada prazerosa. O batedor não tentará vencer, mas sim procurar conhecer o cenário, identificar o que existe no plano real, investigando a situação da forma mais precisa e franca possível. A mente do batedor está sempre aberta.

Segundo a palestrante, essa é uma mentalidade fascinante. E eu tenho que concordar com ela. Vencer as barreiras dos nossos próprios preconceitos e tentar enxergar os fatos é muito difícil. Envolve admitir que nossos julgamentos estão errados, deixar de lado o nosso ego e as nossas emoções. Ser um pouco mais racional, perseguir mais a curiosidade.

Isso não significa que defender um ideal é algo errado ou contrário à racionalidade, de forma alguma. Porém, antes de tomar essa crença como sua e tentar defendê-la com unhas e dentes, busque a verdade. E, se você perceber que estava errada, tudo bem. A mente aberta é o que nos move a conhecer cada vez mais o mundo e a vida como realmente são. Na pior das hipóteses, nos ajuda a enxergar um pouco o outro lado da moeda.

Encerro este textão com o questionamento final da palestrante: "O que você mais anseia? Defender as suas crenças ou enxergar o mundo da forma mais clara possível?"

Confira o TED Talk da Julia na íntegra:


Mariana Zambon Braga
Responsável pela redação da Rede, é tradutora de inglês, formada em letras pela USP.
Atua nas áreas de: contratos, traduções técnicas, traduções literárias, artigos e monografias. Escritora por vocação e realizadora por necessidade.


Imagem: Unsplash

 

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